1. Samji H, Cescon A, Hogg RS, Modur SP, Althoff KN, Buchacz K, et al. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada. PLoS One 2013; 8(12):e81355.
  2. Smith C, Sabin CA, Lundgren JD, Thiebaut R, Weber R, Law M, et al. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study. Aids 2010; 24(10):1537-1548.
  3. Palella FJ, Jr., Baker RK, Moorman AC, Chmiel JS, Wood KC, Brooks JT, et al. Mortality in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: changing causes of death and disease in the HIV outpatient study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 43(1):27-34.
  4. Freiberg MS, Chang CC, Kuller LH, Skanderson M, Lowy E, Kraemer KL, et al. HIV Infection and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction. JAMA Intern Med 2013:1-9.
  5. Effros RB, Fletcher CV, Gebo K, Halter JB, Hazzard WR, Horne FM, et al. Aging and infectious diseases: workshop on HIV infection and aging: what is known and future research directions. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47(4):542-553.
  6. Rasmussen LD, Helleberg M, May M, Afzal S, Kronborg G, Larsen CS, et al. Myocardial infarction among Danish HIV-infected individuals: Population attributable fractions associated with smoking. Clin Infect Dis 2015.
  7. Petoumenos K, Worm S, Reiss P, de Wit S, d'Arminio Monforte A, Sabin C, et al; D:A:D Study Group. Rates of cardiovascular disease following smoking cessation in patients with HIV infection: results from the D:A:D study. HIV Med. 2011 Aug;12(7):412-21
  8. Edwards SK, Dean J, Power J, Baker P, Gartner C. Understanding the prevalence of smoking among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Australia and factors associated with smoking and quitting. AIDS Behav. 2019 May 21. doi: 10.1007/s10461-019-02535-3
  9. Ashare RL, Thompson M, Serrano K, Leone F, Metzger D, Frank I, et al. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy and safety of varenicline for smokers with HIV. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Jul 1;200:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.03.011
  10. Manninen V, Tenkanen L, Koskinen P, Huttunen JK, Manttari M, Heinonen OP, et al. Joint effects of serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations on coronary heart disease risk in the Helsinki Heart Study. Implications for treatment. Circulation 1992; 85(1):37-45.
  11. Grunfeld C, Pang M, Doerrler W, Shigenaga JK, Jensen P, Feingold KR. Lipids, lipoproteins, triglyceride clearance, and cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 74(5):1045-1052.
  12. Riddler SA, Smit E, Cole SR, Li R, Chmiel JS, Dobs A, et al. Impact of HIV infection and HAART on serum lipids in men. Jama 2003; 289(22):2978-2982.
  13. Maggi P, De Socio GV, Cicalini S, D'Abbraccio M, Dettorre G, Di Biagio A, et al. Statins and aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease among HIV-positive patients between controversies and unmet needs: review of the literature and suggestions for a friendly use. AIDS Res Ther. 2019;16(1):11
  14. Thompson-Paul AM, Lichtenstein KA, Armon C, Palella FJ Jr, Skarbinski J, Chmiel JS, et al. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction in the HIV Outpatient Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(11):1508-1516.
  15. Mosepele M, Regan S, Massaro J, Meigs JB, Zanni MV, D'Agostino RB Sr, et al. Impact of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines on statin eligibility among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Individuals. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(12):ofy326
  16. Grinspoon SK, Fitch KV, Overton ET, Fichtenbaum CJ, Zanni MV, Aberg JA, et al. Rationale and design of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE). Am Heart J. 2019;212:23-35.
  17. RACGP Guidelines for preventive activities in general practice (cholesterol and other lipids):
  19. Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Shah AD, Denaxas S, et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet 2014; 383(9932):1899-1911.
  20. Hejazi N, Huang MS, Lin KG, Choong LC. Hypertension among HIV-infected adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Malaysia. Glob J Health Sci 2014; 6(2):58-71.
  21. Jerico C, Knobel H, Montero M, Sorli ML, Guelar A, Gimeno JL, et al. Hypertension in HIV-infected patients: prevalence and related factors. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18(11):1396-1401.
  22. Armah KA, Chang CC, Baker JV, Ramachandran VS, Budoff MJ, Crane HM, et al. Prehypertension, hypertension, and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in HIV-infected and -uninfected veterans. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58(1):121-129.
  23. Nduka CU, Stranges S, Sarki AM, Kimani PK, Uthman OA, et al. Evidence of increased blood pressure and hypertension risk among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Hum Hypertens. 2016;30(6):355-62
  24. Guidelines for preventive activities in general practice (blood pressure):
  26. (AIHW) AIoHaW. Analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistcs unpublished confidentialised data. 2012.
  27. Lang S, Mary-Krause M, Cotte L, Gilquin J, Partisani M, Simon A, et al. Increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients in France, relative to the general population. Aids 2010; 24(8):1228-1230.
  28. Triant VA, Lee H, Hadigan C, Grinspoon SK. Increased acute myocardial infarction rates and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92(7):2506-2512.
  29. Meier A, Chang JJ, Chan ES, Pollard RB, Sidhu HK, Kulkarni S, et al. Sex differences in the Toll-like receptor-mediated response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to HIV-1. Nat Med 2009; 15(8):955-959.
  30. Lohse N, Hansen AB, Gerstoft J, Obel N. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007; 60(3):461-463.
  31. Ryom L, Lundgren JD, El-Sadr W, Reiss P, Kirk O, Law M, et al; D:A:D study group. Cardiovascular disease and use of contemporary protease inhibitors: the D:A:D international prospective multicohort study. Lancet HIV. 2018;5(6):e291-e300
  32. LaFleur J1, Bress AP, Rosenblatt L, Crook J, Sax PE, Myers J, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes among HIV-infected veterans receiving atazanavir. AIDS. 2017 Sep 24;31(15):2095-2106
  33. Eyawo O, Brockman G, Goldsmith CH, Hull MW, Lear SA, Bennett M, et al. Risk of myocardial infarction among people living with HIV: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2019;9(9):e025874
  34. Tebas P, Sension M, Arribas J, Duiculescu D, Florence E, Hung CC, et al; ECHO and THRIVE Study Groups. Lipid levels and changes in body fat distribution in treatment-naive, HIV-1-Infected adults treated with rilpivirine or Efavirenz for 96 weeks in the ECHO and THRIVE trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(3):425-34.
  35. Taramasso L, Tatarelli P, Ricci E, Madeddu G, Menzaghi B, Squillace N, et al; CISAI Study Group. Improvement of lipid profile after switching from efavirenz or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors to rilpivirine or once-daily integrase inhibitors: results from a large observational cohort study (SCOLTA). BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):357
  36. Rosenblatt L, Farr AM, Johnston SS, Nkhoma ET. Risk of cardiovascular events among patients initiating efavirenz-containing versus efavirenz-free antiretroviral regimens.Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016;3(2):ofw061
  37. Sabin CA, Worm SW, Weber R, Reiss P, El-Sadr W, et al; D:A:D Study Group. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the D:A:D study: a multi-cohort collaboration. Lancet 2008; 371(9622):1417-1426
  38. Sabin CA, Reiss P, Ryom L, Phillips AN, Weber R, Law M, et al; D:A:D Study Group. Is there continued evidence for an association between abacavir usage and myocardial infarction risk in individuals with HIV? A cohort collaboration. BMC Med. 2016;14:61. doi: 10.1186/s12916-016-0588-4.
  39. Dorjee K, Choden T, Baxi SM, Steinmaus C, Reingold AL. Risk of cardiovascular disease associated with exposure to abacavir among individuals with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analyses of results from 17 epidemiologic studies. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2018;52(5):541-553
  40. Nan C, Shaefer M, Urbaityte R, Oyee J, Hopking J, Ragone L, et al. Abacavir use and risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: pooled analysis of data from clinical trials. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 20;5(5):ofy086.
  41. Baum PD, Sullam PM, Stoddart CA, McCune JM. Abacavir increases platelet reactivity via competitive inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase. Aids 2011; 25(18):2243-2248.
  42. Jong E, Meijers JC, van Gorp EC, Spek CA, Mulder JW. Markers of inflammation and coagulation indicate a prothrombotic state in HIV-infected patients with long-term use of antiretroviral therapy with or without abacavir. AIDS Res Ther 2010; 7:9.
  43. Satchell CS, O'Halloran JA, Cotter AG, Peace AJ, O'Connor EF, Tedesco AF, et al. Increased platelet reactivity in HIV-1-infected patients receiving abacavir-containing antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 2011; 204(8):1202-1210.
  44. Sax PE, Erlandson KM, Lake JE, McComsey GA, Orkin C, Esser S, et al. Weight gain following initiation of antiretroviral therapy: risk factors in randomized comparative clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 14. pii: ciz999. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz999
  45. Maisa A, Hearps AC, Angelovich TA, Pereira CF, Zhou J, Shui MDY, et al. Monocytes from HIV infected individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and increased foam cell formation after transendothelial migration. AIDS. 2015;29(12):1445-57.
  46. Lien E, Aukrust P, Sundan A, Müller F, Frøland SS, Espevik T. Elevated levels of serum-soluble CD14 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection: correlation to disease progression and clinical events. Blood. 1998;92(6):2084-92.
  47. Sandler NG, Wand H, Roque A, Law M, Nason MC, Nixon DE, et al; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 independently predict mortality in HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(6):780-90
  48. Reiner AP, Lange EM, Jenny NS, Chaves PH, Ellis J, Li J, et al. Soluble CD14: genomewide association analysis and relationship to cardiovascular risk and mortality in older adults. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33(1):158-64
  49. Pedersen KK, Pedersen M, Troseid M, Gaardbo JC, Lund TT, Thomsen C, et al. Microbial translocation in HIV infection is associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and risk of myocardial infarction. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013; 64(5):425-433.
  50. Shive CL1, Jiang W, Anthony DD, Lederman MM. Soluble CD14 is a nonspecific marker of monocyte activation. AIDS. 2015;29(10):1263-5
  51. Castley A, Berry C, French M, Fernandez S, Krueger R, Nolan D. Elevated plasma soluble CD14 and skewed CD16+ monocyte distribution persist despite normalisation of soluble CD163 and CXCL10 by effective HIV therapy: a changing paradigm for routine HIV laboratory monitoring? PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115226
  52. Lombardi F, Belmonti S, Borghetti A, Ciccullo A, Baldin G, Cauda R, et al. Reduced soluble CD14 levels after switching from a dual regimen with lamivudine plus boosted protease inhibitors to lamivudine plus dolutegravir in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. HIV Res Clin Pract. 2019 Sep 3:1-7. doi: 10.1080/ 25787489.2019.1653512.
  53. Katlama C, Assoumou L, Valantin MA, Soulié C, Martinez E, Béniguel L, et al; members of the ANRS 163 ETRAL study . Dual therapy combining raltegravir with etravirine maintains a high level of viral suppression over 96 weeks in long-term experienced HIV-infected individuals over 45 years on a PI-based regimen: results from the Phase II ANRS 163 ETRAL study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74(9):2742-2751.
  54. Lichtner M, Cicconi P, Vita S, Cozzi-Lepri A, Galli M, Lo Caputo S, et al. CMV co-infection is associated with increased risk of Severe non-AIDS events in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. J Infect Dis 2015;211(2):178-86.
  55. Freiberg MS, Chang CC, Skanderson M, McGinnis K, Kuller LH, Kraemer KL, et al. The risk of incident coronary heart disease among veterans with and without HIV and hepatitis C. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2011; 4(4):425-432.
  56. Mocroft A, Lundgren J, Gerstoft J, Rasmussen LD, Bhagani S, Aho I, et al; EuroSIDA Study. Clinical outcomes in persons coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus: Impact of Hepatitis C Virus treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 2. pii: ciz601. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz601
  57. 55.Grinspoon SK, Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Currier JS, Lundgren JD, Dube MP, et al. State of the science conference: Initiative to decrease cardiovascular risk and increase quality of care for patients living with HIV/AIDS: executive summary. Circulation 2008; 118(2):198-210.
  58. Althoff KN, McGinnis KA, Wyatt CM, Freiberg MS, Gilbert C, Oursler KK, et al. Comparison of risk and age at diagnosis of myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease, and non-AIDS-defining cancer in HIV-infected versus uninfected adults. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60(4):627-638.
  59. Lo J, Abbara S, Shturman L, Soni A, Wei J, Rocha-Filho JA, et al. Increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis detected by coronary computed tomography angiography in HIV-infected men. Aids 2010; 24(2):243-253.
  60. D'Ascenzo F, Cerrato E, Calcagno A, Grossomarra W, Ballocca F, Omede P, et al. High prevalence at computed coronary tomography of non-calcified plaques in asymptomatic HIV patients treated with HAART: a meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis 2015; 240(1):197-204.
  61. Perello R, Calvo M, Miro O, Castaneda M, Saubi N, Camon S, et al. Clinical presentation of acute coronary syndrome in HIV infected adults: a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cohort. Eur J Intern Med 2011; 22(5):485-488.
  62. Hsue PY, Giri K, Erickson S, MacGregor JS, Younes N, Shergill A, et al. Clinical features of acute coronary syndromes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Circulation 2004; 109(3):316-319.
  63. D'Ascenzo F, Cerrato E, Biondi-Zoccai G, Moretti C, Omede P, Sciuto F, et al. Acute coronary syndromes in human immunodeficiency virus patients: a meta-analysis investigating adverse event rates and the role of antiretroviral therapy. Eur Heart J 2012; 33(7):875-880.
  64. Pearce D, Ani C, Espinosa-Silva Y, Clark R, Fatima K, Rahman M, et al. Comparison of in-hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction in HIV sero-positive versus sero-negative individuals. Am J Cardiol 2012; 110(8):1078-1084.