Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome

There is a wide variety of vasculitis diagnoses recorded in HIV-infected patients affecting vessels of all sizes. It has been suggested that an excess of CD8+ T-cells may trigger the vessel inflammation, possibly related to opportunistic infections in the context of severe CD4+ T cell depletion. Infections by Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jiroveci, cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster virus have been implicated and the vasculitis can involve the gut, lungs, central nervous system and skin (33, 34). Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment of vasculitis and sometimes very large doses are needed if the condition is severe or life-threatening.