People who inject drugs (PWID) and are living with HIV often experience severe stigmatisation and discrimination. Despite the fact that Australia has been proactive in terms of developing and implementing harm reduction policies, in practice, evidence suggests that people who inject drugs frequently experience reduced access to health care and discrimination and poor treatment within health-care services. They can be at greater risk of late HIV diagnosis than men who have sex with men or heterosexuals. The leading health agency of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, called for the decriminalisation of drug use in 2014 in order to reduce the harms associated with criminalisation of drug use. Without a firm commitment to the provision of harm minimisation and peer-based responses, HIV epidemics can develop and spread rapidly.