Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer is extremely rare and is usually related to HPV infection (103), but may rarely be caused by melanoma, sarcoma or adenocarcinoma or be due to metastatic disease.  It occurs mainly in older women and the risk is increased if there have been other HPV-related genital cancers.


There are no recommendations regarding screening for vaginal cancer.

 Clinical presentation

There may be no symptoms or the patient may notice a hard lump, bleeding or an odorous vaginal discharge or complain of genital pain.


Diagnosis is made by biopsy with histopathological examination of tissue.


Treatment depends on the stage of the disease and involves surgical excision and radiotherapy (104). Advanced cases may also receive chemotherapy (105). Prognosis is generally poor despite these treatments (103).