An increase in immunoglobulin production occurs as part of the immune dysfunction caused by HIV infection and monoclonal paraproteins have been reported in as many as 7% of people with HIV infection. They do not appear to be clinically significant and may persist despite ART.20 Similarly, cryoglobulinaemia has been reported in HIV infection, again without clinical significance. Over 90% of HIV patients with cryoglobulinaemia are co-infected with hepatitis C virus and HIV infection does nt appear to be a causative factor.21