Glossary of terms

Abbreviation Denotation
µL microlitre
3TC lamivudine
Ab antibody
ABC abacavir
ABMT autologous bone marrow transplantation
ACIP CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, USA
ACTH adrenocorticotrophin hormone
ADCC antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
AFAO Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations
Ag antigen
AIDS Acquired immune defi ciency syndrome
AI AIDS-defi ning illness
ALT alanine aminotransferase or alanine transaminase
Anti-HBc antibody to hepatitis B core antigen
Anti-HBe antibody to hepatitis B e antigen
Anti-HBs antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen
ART antiretroviral therapy
ARVS acute retroviral syndrome
ASHM Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine
AST aspartate aminotransferase
ATV atazanavir
AUC area under the curve
AZT zidovudine or azidothymidine or ZDV
B cell a type of immune cell
bd twice daily (latin: bis die)
bDNA branched deoxyribonucleic acid
BMD bone mineral density
CAF cell-associated factor
cART combination antiretroviral therapy
CHOP chemotherapy (cyclophosphanud, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone)
CCR5 chemokine coreceptor on the surface of cells
CD4 cell a helper T-cell which carries the CD4 surface antigen. CD4 cells are the primary target of HIV and CD4 cell numbers decline during HIV disease.
CD8 cell a killer or cytotoxic T-cell which carries the CD8 surface antigen.
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
CI confi dence interval
CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
CMV cytomegalovirus
CNS central nervous system
CPE CNS penetration-effectiveness
CRF circulating recombinant form
CSF cerebrospinal fl uid
CT computed tomography
CTL cytotoxic T lymphocyte
CVD cardiovascular disease
CXCR4 chemokine receptor
d4T stavudine
DAD Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs
DC dendritic cell
DC-SIGN dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin
ddC zalcitabine
ddI didanosine
DEXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
DHHS US Department of Health and Human Services
DILS diff use infi ltrative lymphocytosis syndrome
DLV delavirdine
DM diabetes mellitus
DN double negative
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DOT directly observed therapy
DRV darunavir
EBV Epstein Barr virus
EC elite controllers
EFV efavirenz
EIA enzyme immunosorbent assay
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ELISPOT enzyme-linked immunospot assay
ENF enfuvirtide
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiography
ETV etravirine
EVG elvitegravir
FasL Fas ligand
FBC full blood count
FDA Food and Drug Administration USA
FPV fosamprenavir
FTA-Abs fl uorescent treponemal antibody absorption test
FTC emtricitabine
GBV-C fl avivirus GB virus-C
GCSF granulocyte colony stimulating factor
GH growth hormone
GHRH growth hormone-releasing hormone
GI gastrointestinal
GORD gastro-oesophageal refl ux disease
gp120 glycoprotein on surface of HIV which binds to the CD4 receptor
gp41 glycoprotein on the surface of HIV involved in fusion between HIV and the CD4 cell
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy (see cART, now preferred terminology)
HAD HIV-1-associated dementia
HAND HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
HAV hepatitis A virus
HBsAG hepatitis B surface antigen
HBeAG hepatitis B envelope antigen
HBV hepatitis B virus
HCC hepatocellular carcinoma
HCV hepatitis C virus
HD Hodgkin’s disease
HDL high-density lipoprotein
HEPS highly exposed but persistently seronegative
HHV8 human herpesvirus type 8
HIV human immunodefi ciency virus
HIV-1 human immunodefi ciency virus-1
HIV-2 human immunodefi ciency virus-2
HIVAN HIV- associated nephropathy
HLA human leukocyte antigens
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
HPV human papilloma virus
HSV herpes simplex virus
HZ herpes zoster
IDSA Infectious Diseases Society of America
IDU injecting drug use
IDV indinavir
IFN interferon
Ig immunoglobin
IL interleukin
IM intramuscularly
INR international normalised ratio (a test of blood clotting)
IRD immune restoration disease
ISR injection site reactions
ITP immune thrombocytopenic purpura
IU international unit (measurement)
IV intravenous
JCV John Cunningham virus
KGF keratin growth factor
KOH potassium hydroxide
KS Kaposi’s sarcoma
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LFT liver function test
LN lymph node
LP lumbar puncture
LPS lipopolysaccharide
LPV lopinavir
LPV/r lopinavir/ritonavir
LTNP long-term non-progressors
LTR long-terminal repeat
MAC Mycobacterium avium complex
MACS Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
mDC myeloid dendritic cells
MDMA Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (Ecstasy)
MDR multidrug resistance
MHC major histocompatibility complex
MIC minimum inhibitory concentration
MIP macrophage infl ammatory proteins
mL millilitre
mmol millimole
MND mild neurocognitive disorder
MRI magnetic resonance image
MRS magnetic resonance spectroscopy
MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MSM men who have sex with men
MTCT mother-to-child transmission
MF macrophages
NAA nucleic acid amplifi cation
NAM nucleoside analogue mutation
NF nuclear factor
NFV nelfi navir
NHL non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NPEP non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis
NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI)
NSI non-syncytium inducing
NVP nevirapine
OC oesophageal candidiasis
OHL oral hairy leukoplakia
OI opportunistic infection
ORF open reading frame
p24 a core HIV protein, the primary protein detected by the HIV antigen test
PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cells
PBS Pharmaceutical benefits Scheme
PCNSL primary central nervous system lymphoma
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PD programmed death
PEP post-exposure prophylaxis
pg/mL picogram per millilitre
PI protease inhibitors
PI/r protease inhibitors boosted by ritonavir
PJP Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia previously Pneumocystis carinii
PK pharmacokinetic
PLA poly-L-lactic acid
PML progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy
PNG Papua New Guinea
PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
PTH parathyroid hormone
qd every day (latin: quaqua die)
qds to be taken four times a day (Latin: quater die sumendum)
RAL raltegravir
RANTES regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted
RNA ribonucleic acid
RPR rapid plasmin reagin
RT reverse transcriptase
RT-PCR reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
RTV ritonavir
SAS Special Access Scheme
SAT subcutaneous adipose tissue
SDF stromal cell-derived factor
s100 a section of the Pharmaceutical benefits Scheme which provides access to highly specialised drugs
SI syncytium inducing
SIL squamous intraepithelial lesions
SIV Simian Immunodefi ciency Virus
SMART study Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy study
SN sensory neuropathy
SP single positive
SQV saquinavir
SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
STI sexually transmitted or transmissble infection
SVR sustained virological response
T-20 enfuvirtide
TAMs thymidine analogue mutations
TB tuberculosis
T cell type of lymphocyte
TcR T cell receptors
td three times daily (Latin: ter die)
tds to be taken three times a day (Latin: ter die sumendum)
TDF tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir
TDM therapeutic drug monitoring
TEN toxic epidermal necrolysis
TGA Therapeutic Drugs Administration
Th1 type 1 helper lymphocytes
Th2 type 2 lymphocytes
TLR toll like receptors
TNF tumour necrosis factor
TP-PA Treponema pallidum particle agglutination
TPV tipranavir
TREC T-cell receptor excision circles
Treg specialised regulatory T cells
TRIM5alpha human tripartite motif 5 alpha
TSG tumor suppressor gene
TSLP thymic stromal lymphopoetin
TST tuberculin skin test
UNAIDS The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS
USA United States of America
UTR untranslated region
VAT visceral adipose tissue
VL viral load
VLDL very low density lipoprotein
VM vacuolar myelopathy
VRE vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus
VZV varicella zoster virus
ZDV zidovudine